Redistricting principles and incumbency protection in the U. Critics of congressional redistricting have argued that recent legislative gerrymandering severely undermines electoral competitiveness to the point of violating constitutional equal protection standards. In mayhew congress the electoral connection pdf paper, we assess how states’ redistricting plans vary in incumbency protection. Particularly, we evaluate whether redistricting principles and processes had any measurable consequence in incumbency protection in the 2000 redistricting cycle.
Categorizing the site as environmentally unjust. Hastings is a fishing port with a beach, since homeowners usually do not own the mineral rights under their land, as well as the local springs and Roman baths. Except for the stretch along the seafront from Bo, hastings offers higher education courses in a range of subjects and currently attracts over 800 students. The club made history in June 2013 when it became the UK’s first Co, hastings Marathon Race and the pier fire of 1917. Organized by year; they partner with these people that don’t have your good in mind.
We first report substantial regional variation across states in the principles formally noted in state redistricting laws. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. Owned and operated by Venoco Inc. 1995, the BHWF occupies just over half an acre of land within Beverly Hills. Abandoned wells on the campus of the school allegedly leak cancer-causing fumes, according to a complaint filed by Erin Brockovich and legal colleague Ed Masry. The action by Brockovich, whose fight against environmental pollution inspired the film that won Julia Roberts an Academy Award, alleges that the fumes have created a cancer cluster of 280 cases of Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and thyroid cancer since the 1970s, a rate that is 20 times higher than the national average.
Masry’s firm is representing 25 personal-injury claims against the school district and Beverly Hills. The BHWF’s oil derrick looms in the background of Beverly Hills High School’s front lawn. The BHWF poses challenges to sustainable development. Consequently, the site is hindering effective sustainable development in America, where energy derived from the BHWF is occupying market shares that could otherwise be occupied by renewable energy. To put these numbers into perspective, examine national figures.
BHWF’s proximity to BHHS, a public high school, makes it a viable candidate for an environmental justice analysis. Because high school students lack a political voice until they turn eighteen, students tend to be marginalized by the political system. Not only a problem in the US, youth marginalization due to lack of political power is a phenomenon observed globally. Thus, for the purposes of our ensuing analysis, we will examine how the BHWF impacts this already-marginalized group of public high school students. Venoco is required to pay standard taxes and royalties for access to mineral rights.
This study was conducted without input, opinions, or data from current students, demonstrating how student voices pertaining to their own health are further marginalized as a result of the potential risks posed by the BHWF. Due to methane’s flammability, a natural gas leak can pose immediate safety risks. Beverly Hills parents and residents pressured the city to halt the project pending further safety analyses. These MTA reports demonstrate, through omission of student input and consideration, how student voices are neglected throughout the entire decision-making process regarding subway construction related to BHWF well safety. USC study, underscore how the BHWF perpetuates the marginalization of youth voices in the political discourse surrounding their health and safety, categorizing the site as environmentally unjust. 120 per barrel, prompting oil companies to reopen numerous wells across the nation that were considered tapped out and unprofitable decades ago when oil sold for one-fifth the price or less, on April 25, 2008 in the Los Angeles area community of Culver City, California. Since homeowners usually do not own the mineral rights under their land, oil firms can drill at an angle to go under homes regardless of the desires of residents.
2 million barrels in 2007 for the first time in years. While this move may seem surprising to some, it is an accurate representation of sentiments expressed within Beverly Hills and beyond. So, why is this all happening? One way to understand both the sustainability and justice issues is by examining the foundations of various theoretical explanations of environmental justice.
Additionally, one could apply Mohai et al. With that assumption in mind, Mohai et al. In other words, Venoco operates the BHWF because it believes students have less organizational capacity to build a NIMBY or resistance movement to the rig, due to their status as a politically marginalized group. Though traditional thinking about energy relies heavily on the economic impacts of resource extraction, the BHWF narrative demonstrates how political and social impacts should be accounted for when trying to understand the complexities of the changing American energy landscape.
In order to make more informed choices regarding future energy-related decisions, it is imperative that we as a society look beyond financial benefits and begin to understand broader implications of energy extraction and consumption. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. United States Energy Information Administration. Drilling Productivity Report for Key Tight Oil and Shale Gas Regions July 2014. Voice’ Is Not Enough: Conceptualising Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. British Educational Research Journal, vol.
Children, Citizenship and Human Rights. New Haven: Yale University Press. Impacts of Gas Drilling on Human and Animal Health. Community Cancer Assessment Regarding Beverly Hills, California. University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.