One group of parts is connected to the rotating shaft and the other to the machine’s case. The spring keeps dry gas seal handbook pdf elements tight against each other, maintaining the seal and allowing for wear. When a pump operates, the liquid could leak out of the pump between the rotating shaft and the stationary pump casing.
Since the shaft rotates, preventing this leakage can be difficult. Since World War II, mechanical seals have replaced packing in many applications. An end face mechanical seal uses both rigid and flexible elements that maintain contact at a sealing interface and slide on each other, allowing a rotating element to pass through a sealed case. The elements are both hydraulically and mechanically loaded with a spring or other device to maintain contact. An end face mechanical seal consists of rotating and stationary components which are tightly pressed together using both mechanical and hydraulic forces.
Even though these components are tightly pressed together, a small amount of leakage occurs through a clearance that is related to the surface roughness. The seal ring and mating ring are sometimes referred to as the primary sealing surfaces. The primary sealing surfaces are the heart of the end face mechanical seal. A common material combination for the primary sealing surfaces is a hard material, such as silicon carbide, ceramic or tungsten carbide and a softer material, such as carbon.
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Many other materials can be used depending on pressure, temperature and the chemical properties of the liquid being sealed. The seal ring and mating ring are in intimate contact, one ring rotates with the shaft and the other ring is stationary. Either ring may be rotating or stationary. Also, either ring may be made of hard or soft material. These two rings are machined using a process called lapping in order to obtain the necessary degree of surface finish and flatness. By definition, the seal ring is the axially flexible member of the end face mechanical seal. The design of the seal ring must allow for minimizing distortion and maximizing heat transfer while considering the secondary sealing element, drive mechanism, spring and ease of assembly.
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